ADHD Assessments and Their Role in Effective Treatment Plans

ADHD Assessments

ADHD, or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, is a neurodevelopmental condition that affects individuals of all ages. Characterized by difficulties in attention, impulse control, and hyperactivity, ADHD can significantly impact academic performance, work productivity, and personal relationships. While there is no cure for ADHD, effective treatment plans tailored to individual needs can greatly improve the quality of life for those with this condition.

In order to develop these personalized treatment plans, it is crucial to undergo thorough assessments that provide valuable insights into an individual’s cognitive functioning and behavioral patterns. These assessments play a pivotal role in accurately diagnosing ADHD and determining the most appropriate interventions. In this blog post, we will explore the importance of ADHD assessments and how they contribute to effective treatment plans. Whether you are seeking assessment options for yourself or a loved one with ADHD symptoms, read on to discover valuable information that can guide your journey towards understanding and managing this complex disorder.

Understanding ADHD

ADHD, or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, is a neurodevelopmental condition that affects individuals of all ages. It is characterized by persistent patterns of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity that significantly impact daily functioning and relationships. ADHD can manifest differently in children and adults, with symptoms often presenting during childhood but continuing into adulthood for many individuals.

In childhood ADHD, symptoms may include difficulty sustaining attention on tasks or activities, excessive fidgeting or squirming, talking excessively or blurting out answers without waiting their turn. Adult ADHD often presents as chronic disorganization, difficulty managing time effectively and impulsiveness in decision-making. Understanding the unique manifestations of ADHD across different age groups is crucial for accurate diagnosis and developing effective treatment plans tailored to individual needs.

About ADHD

ADHD, or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, is a neurodevelopmental disorder that primarily affects children and can persist into adulthood. It is characterized by symptoms such as inattentiveness, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.

Children with ADHD often struggle with paying attention, following instructions, staying organized, and controlling their impulses. They may have difficulty sitting still or waiting their turn. These symptoms can significantly impact their academic performance and social interactions.

In adults, ADHD may manifest differently but can still lead to challenges in everyday life. Adults with ADHD may experience difficulties with time management, organization, maintaining relationships, and impulse control. It’s important to note that while the exact cause of ADHD is unknown, research suggests a combination of genetic factors and environmental influences play a role in its development.

Adult ADHD

Adult ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent patterns of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that continue into adulthood. While it is often associated with childhood onset, research suggests that up to 60% of children diagnosed with ADHD will continue to experience symptoms well into their adult years.

In adults, ADHD can manifest in various ways, including difficulty focusing on tasks or conversations, impulsivity in decision-making or behavior, restlessness and inability to relax, chronic disorganization and forgetfulness. These symptoms can significantly impact daily functioning and lead to challenges in relationships, work performance, and overall quality of life. It is important for individuals experiencing these symptoms to seek an assessment for a proper diagnosis and access appropriate treatment options.

Childhood ADHD

Childhood ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent patterns of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. It commonly starts during early childhood and can significantly impact a child’s daily functioning and academic performance. Children with ADHD may struggle to follow instructions, stay organized, manage time effectively, and exhibit impulsive behavior.

Inattentiveness in children with ADHD manifests as difficulty sustaining attention on tasks or activities that require mental effort. They may also have trouble listening actively or following through on instructions. Hyperactivity refers to excessive motor activity such as fidgeting or squirming in their seat when expected to remain seated. Impulsivity involves acting without considering the consequences which can lead to interrupting others during conversations or engaging in risky behaviors.

Early identification of childhood ADHD is crucial for implementing appropriate interventions and support strategies tailored to the child’s specific needs. A comprehensive assessment conducted by healthcare professionals assesses various aspects including medical history, behavioral observations, parent/caregiver reports, teacher input (if applicable), and standardized rating scales completed by both parents and teachers.

The diagnosis of childhood ADHD relies on meeting specific criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The assessment process helps differentiate between other conditions that may present similar symptoms like anxiety disorders or learning disabilities. Understanding the unique challenges faced by each child guides the development of effective treatment plans aimed at improving their overall well-being and helping them reach their full potential.

Importance of Assessments

Assessments play a crucial role in the effective treatment of ADHD. By thoroughly evaluating an individual’s symptoms, behaviors, and overall functioning, assessments provide valuable insights into the presence and severity of ADHD. This information is essential for healthcare professionals to develop personalized treatment plans that address specific needs.

During the assessment process, various tools are utilized to gather comprehensive data about the individual’s symptoms and their impact on daily life. In children and teenagers, assessments typically involve interviews with parents or caregivers, observations of behavior at home and school settings, as well as questionnaires completed by teachers. In adults, self-report questionnaires may be used alongside interviews with partners or close family members who can offer additional perspectives.

The results obtained from these assessments assist clinicians in making accurate diagnoses and determining appropriate interventions. With a proper diagnosis in hand, healthcare providers can tailor treatment plans to suit each individual’s unique needs. These plans may include a combination of medication management strategies, therapy sessions (such as cognitive-behavioral therapy), lifestyle modifications (e.g., exercise routines), and educational support.

Furthermore, assessments help individuals gain access to much-needed support services tailored specifically for those with ADHD. These services may range from academic accommodations such as extra time during exams or preferential seating in classrooms to specialized counseling programs aimed at addressing emotional challenges often associated with ADHD.

Assessment process

The assessment process for ADHD involves a comprehensive evaluation of an individual’s symptoms, behaviors, and medical history. It typically begins with an initial consultation where the healthcare professional gathers information about the person’s experiences and concerns. This may be followed by a series of standardized tests and questionnaires that assess attention, impulsivity, hyperactivity, and other related traits. The results are then analyzed to determine if the criteria for an ADHD diagnosis are met.

Once the assessment is complete, the healthcare professional will discuss their findings with the individual or their parents/guardians in order to provide a clear explanation of the diagnosis. This includes discussing any co-existing conditions or factors that could impact treatment options. It is important for individuals to actively participate in this process by providing honest and detailed information about their experiences as it helps ensure accurate evaluation and subsequent treatment planning.

Diagnosis in children and teenagers

Diagnosing ADHD in children and teenagers is a crucial step in understanding and managing their symptoms effectively. The assessment process typically involves gathering information from multiple sources, including parents, teachers, and other caregivers. The healthcare professional will evaluate the child’s behavior patterns across different settings and use standardized criteria to determine if they meet the diagnostic criteria for ADHD.

During the assessment, the healthcare professional may conduct interviews with both the child and their caregivers to gather comprehensive information about their symptoms. They may also utilize rating scales or questionnaires that assess various aspects of ADHD symptomatology. It is important for parents or guardians to provide accurate details about the child’s behaviors at home, school, and social environments to ensure an accurate diagnosis.

Diagnosis in adults

Diagnosing ADHD in adults can be a complex process that requires careful evaluation and consideration of various factors. Unlike children, whose symptoms may be more noticeable and easier to identify, adults with ADHD often exhibit subtler signs that can mimic other mental health conditions or simply go unnoticed.

To accurately diagnose adult ADHD, healthcare professionals typically conduct comprehensive assessments that involve gathering information from multiple sources. This may include interviews with the individual being assessed as well as their close family members or partners who can provide valuable insights into their behaviors and experiences. Additionally, clinicians may use standardized questionnaires and rating scales specifically designed to assess adult ADHD symptoms.

The diagnostic process for adult ADHD also involves ruling out other possible explanations for the reported symptoms, such as anxiety disorders or mood disorders. A thorough review of the individual’s medical history is essential to identify any underlying physical conditions or medications that could contribute to their symptoms. Furthermore, assessing how these symptoms have impacted various aspects of the person’s life – such as work performance, relationships, and overall functioning – helps determine whether they meet the criteria for an ADHD diagnosis.

Diagnosing adult ADHD requires a comprehensive evaluation encompassing various elements like self-reporting by the individual themselves along with collateral information from close contacts. By carefully considering all relevant information and using validated assessment tools, healthcare professionals can make an accurate diagnosis and develop appropriate treatment plans tailored to each individual’s specific needs.

Types of Assessments

When it comes to assessing ADHD, there are various types of assessments that can be conducted. These assessments play a crucial role in accurately diagnosing and understanding the condition, which then informs the development of effective treatment plans.

One type of assessment is self-assessment tools. These are questionnaires or checklists that individuals can complete on their own to evaluate their symptoms and experiences related to ADHD. While these tools can provide some initial insights, they should not be used as a definitive diagnosis tool. Another option is seeking private ADHD diagnosis from healthcare professionals who specialize in neurodevelopmental disorders. This usually involves comprehensive evaluations through interviews, medical history review, and sometimes psychological testing. However, private assessments may come with costs that need to be considered.

Alternatively, individuals can opt for NHS assessment options provided by public services such as primary care doctors or mental health clinics specializing in ADHD evaluations. These assessments often involve consultations with professionals who have experience working with adults or children with ADHD symptoms. The process typically includes gathering information about personal histories and experiences from both the individual and their family members or caregivers.

It’s important for individuals seeking an ADHD assessment to explore different types of assessments available and choose what best suits their needs and circumstances. Each type has its advantages and considerations that should be taken into account before making a decision.

Self-assessment tools

Self-assessment tools can be a valuable resource for individuals seeking to understand their own ADHD symptoms and evaluate the possibility of having ADHD. These tools are typically questionnaires or checklists designed to assess various aspects of ADHD, such as inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. They allow individuals to self-report their experiences and behaviors related to ADHD.

Using self-assessment tools can provide a starting point for conversations with healthcare professionals during the assessment process. However, it is important to note that these tools cannot replace a formal diagnosis by a qualified professional. They are meant to serve as an initial screening tool and should be followed up with a comprehensive evaluation conducted by trained clinicians or specialists in order to accurately diagnose ADHD and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Private ADHD diagnosis

Private ADHD diagnosis is an option for individuals seeking a thorough assessment and evaluation outside of the NHS system. This approach involves consulting with private healthcare professionals specializing in ADHD to determine if the symptoms align with the condition. Private assessments often include comprehensive interviews, questionnaires, and observations from various sources, such as family members or teachers.

One advantage of private ADHD diagnosis is shorter waiting times compared to public services. Additionally, this option allows individuals to have more control over their assessment process and choose professionals they feel comfortable working with. However, it’s important to consider that private assessments may come at a cost not covered by insurance or accessible to everyone. It’s recommended to research reputable clinics or practitioners before pursuing this route for an accurate diagnosis and tailored treatment plan.

NHS assessment options

The National Health Service (NHS) offers a range of assessment options for individuals seeking an ADHD diagnosis. Through the NHS, individuals can access specialized clinics and services that are dedicated to evaluating and diagnosing ADHD in both children and adults. These assessments typically involve a comprehensive evaluation conducted by a team of healthcare professionals, including psychiatrists, psychologists, and other specialists who have expertise in ADHD.

During the assessment process, various tools and measures are utilized to gather information about the individual’s symptoms, functioning, and overall well-being. This may include interviews with the individual as well as their family members or close friends. Additionally, questionnaires and standardized rating scales may be used to assess specific areas such as attention span, impulsivity, hyperactivity levels, and emotional regulation. The results of these assessments help determine whether an individual meets the criteria for an ADHD diagnosis according to established diagnostic guidelines.

Once diagnosed through NHS assessment options, individuals can receive appropriate support and treatment tailored to their specific needs. Treatment plans often include a combination of medication management strategies along with behavioral interventions or therapy sessions aimed at managing symptoms effectively. Furthermore, the NHS provides access to additional resources such as support groups where individuals can connect with others facing similar challenges related to ADHD.

By offering comprehensive assessment options through its dedicated clinics and services, the NHS plays a vital role in ensuring timely diagnosis of ADHD while also providing ongoing support for those affected by this condition across all age groups within a structured healthcare system setting.

Benefits of Assessments

Assessments play a crucial role in the effective treatment of ADHD by providing valuable insights into an individual’s symptoms, strengths, and challenges. One major benefit is that assessments help tailor personalized treatment plans to address specific needs. By thoroughly evaluating an individual’s symptoms and functioning across various domains (such as attention, impulsivity, and executive functions), healthcare professionals can develop targeted interventions to improve daily functioning and overall well-being.

Moreover, assessments also provide access to support services tailored to meet the unique needs of individuals with ADHD. Through the assessment process, healthcare professionals can identify appropriate resources such as therapy options, medication management strategies, educational accommodations, and behavioral interventions. This ensures that individuals receive comprehensive support designed specifically for their circumstances. Assessments are not only beneficial for the initial diagnosis but also serve as a foundation for ongoing monitoring of progress and making necessary adjustments to treatment plans over time.

Tailoring treatment plans

Tailoring treatment plans for individuals with ADHD is crucial in order to address their unique needs and challenges. Each person’s experience of ADHD varies, and what works for one may not work for another. Therefore, it is important to customize treatment plans based on the specific symptoms, strengths, and preferences of each individual.

One aspect of tailoring treatment plans is selecting appropriate interventions that target the specific executive functioning deficits or behavioral difficulties experienced by the person with ADHD. This might involve utilizing cognitive-behavioral therapy techniques to improve time management skills or implementing organizational strategies to enhance productivity. Additionally, considering any co-occurring conditions such as anxiety or depression can help inform the selection of treatments that address both ADHD symptoms and mental health concerns.

Moreover, tailoring treatment plans also involves regular monitoring and adjustments to ensure ongoing effectiveness. Evaluating progress through feedback from individuals with ADHD and their support networks allows healthcare professionals to modify interventions accordingly. It is essential that these adjustments are made collaboratively between healthcare providers and individuals with ADHD in order to maintain a holistic approach that aligns with their goals and preferences.

Customizing treatment plans based on individual needs helps maximize the effectiveness of interventions targeting the core features of ADHD while taking into account comorbid conditions. Ongoing communication between healthcare providers and individuals with ADHD enables necessary modifications throughout the course of treatment. By tailoring intervention strategies according to each person’s unique profile, optimal outcomes can be achieved in managing symptoms associated with ADHD.

Accessing support services

Accessing support services is an essential component of effective ADHD management. Once an assessment has been conducted and a diagnosis confirmed, individuals with ADHD can benefit from various support options tailored to their specific needs. These services may include counseling or therapy sessions, medication management, educational accommodations, and behavioral interventions.

Support services for ADHD can be accessed through a variety of avenues. Healthcare professionals such as psychologists or psychiatrists may offer individual or group therapy sessions aimed at addressing the unique challenges associated with ADHD. Additionally, organizations and community resources often provide support groups where individuals can connect with others who share similar experiences and receive guidance from trained facilitators.

It is important for individuals with ADHD to explore different support service options to find what works best for them. By accessing appropriate resources, they can gain valuable insights into managing their symptoms effectively and improving overall well-being. The goal of these services is to empower individuals with ADHD by equipping them with strategies and tools that enhance their daily functioning in various aspects of life.

Tips for ADHD Assessments

When preparing for an ADHD assessment, it is important to approach the process with a proactive mindset and take certain steps to ensure a thorough evaluation. Here are some tips that can help make the assessment process more effective.

It is crucial to communicate openly and honestly with healthcare professionals during the assessment. Be prepared to share detailed information about your symptoms, experiences, and any challenges you face in daily life. This will provide valuable insights for accurate diagnosis and development of an appropriate treatment plan.

Being well-prepared for the assessment can greatly enhance its effectiveness. Before attending the appointment, take some time to gather relevant information such as medical history records, academic reports or work evaluations, and any previous assessments or diagnoses related to ADHD. This will enable healthcare professionals to have a comprehensive understanding of your situation and facilitate informed decision-making regarding treatment options.

By following these tips, individuals undergoing ADHD assessments can contribute towards obtaining accurate diagnoses and developing personalized treatment plans that address their specific needs. It is essential to actively participate in this process in order to achieve optimal outcomes in managing ADHD symptoms effectively.

Speaking to healthcare professionals

When seeking an ADHD assessment, it is essential to engage in open and honest communication with healthcare professionals. Speaking to these experts allows for a comprehensive understanding of the individual’s symptoms, concerns, and experiences. It is crucial to provide detailed information about any past medical or psychological diagnoses, as well as any medications or treatments that have been tried previously.

Additionally, discussing specific challenges experienced at work, school, or in relationships can help healthcare professionals gain insight into how ADHD may be impacting daily functioning. Sharing personal anecdotes and examples can further illustrate the individual’s struggles and strengths. By actively participating in conversations with healthcare professionals during assessments, individuals can contribute valuable information that aids in accurate diagnosis and the development of effective treatment plans.

Being prepared for the assessment

Being prepared for the assessment is crucial in ensuring accurate and comprehensive results. Prior to the assessment, it is important to gather relevant information about the individual’s symptoms, concerns, and experiences. This can be done by keeping a journal or taking notes of specific instances where ADHD-related challenges are observed. Additionally, gathering any previous documentation such as school reports or medical records can provide valuable insights into the individual’s history.

On the day of the assessment, it is advisable to arrive well-rested and mentally prepared. It may be helpful to bring along a list of questions or concerns to discuss with the healthcare professional conducting the assessment. Providing honest and detailed responses during interviews or questionnaires will aid in obtaining an accurate diagnosis. Being open about one’s struggles and symptoms allows for a more comprehensive understanding of their experience with ADHD.

By being proactive in preparing for an assessment, individuals increase their chances of receiving an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment recommendations.

Next Steps after Assessment

After completing an ADHD assessment, the next step is to develop a comprehensive treatment plan. This involves collaborating with healthcare professionals and specialists to create strategies tailored specifically to address the individual’s needs. The treatment plan may include a combination of therapies such as medication, behavioral interventions, counseling, and lifestyle modifications.

Implementing these strategies and therapies is crucial in managing ADHD symptoms effectively. It is important to adhere to the treatment plan consistently and make any necessary adjustments along the way based on progress and feedback from healthcare professionals. Monitoring progress regularly ensures that the chosen interventions are working effectively or if modifications need to be made for better outcomes.

After undergoing an ADHD assessment, it is essential not only to diagnose but also take action by developing a personalized treatment plan that considers various approaches for optimal symptom management and improved quality of life.

Developing a treatment plan

Developing a treatment plan for individuals with ADHD is a crucial step in managing the symptoms and improving overall functioning. The process begins by considering various factors such as the individual’s age, severity of symptoms, and specific challenges they face.

Healthcare professionals collaborate with patients to establish personalized goals and objectives that address their unique needs. This may involve implementing behavioral interventions, medication management strategies, or psychoeducation programs. Additionally, treatment plans often incorporate supportive therapies like cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or social skills training to enhance coping mechanisms and improve daily functioning.

Developing an effective treatment plan requires careful consideration of the individual’s circumstances and preferences to ensure comprehensive support tailored to their specific needs. By implementing these strategies alongside regular monitoring and adjustments if necessary, individuals with ADHD can experience significant improvements in their quality of life.

Implementing strategies and therapies

Implementing strategies and therapies is a crucial step in the treatment plan for individuals with ADHD. These interventions aim to address the specific challenges associated with ADHD symptoms and improve overall functioning.

One strategy commonly used is cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), which helps individuals identify and change negative thought patterns or behaviors that contribute to their difficulties. This type of therapy can assist in developing effective coping mechanisms, improving self-esteem, and enhancing problem-solving skills.

In addition to CBT, medication management may be recommended as part of the treatment plan. Stimulant medications such as methylphenidate or amphetamines are often prescribed to help manage symptoms like impulsivity, hyperactivity, and inattention. Non-stimulant medications like atomoxetine may also be utilized when stimulants are not well-tolerated or preferred.

Implementing these strategies and therapies can significantly improve an individual’s ability to cope with ADHD symptoms and enhance their quality of life. It’s important for healthcare professionals to work collaboratively with patients to determine the most suitable approaches based on their unique needs and preferences.

Monitoring progress and adjustments

Monitoring progress and making necessary adjustments is a crucial aspect of effective ADHD treatment plans. Once an assessment has been conducted and a treatment plan has been developed, it is important to regularly evaluate the individual’s progress. This involves tracking improvements in symptoms, evaluating the effectiveness of strategies and therapies implemented, and assessing any side effects or challenges that may arise.

Regular monitoring allows healthcare professionals to gauge the effectiveness of the treatment plan and make adjustments as needed. It helps ensure that individuals with ADHD are receiving appropriate support tailored to their specific needs. By closely monitoring progress, healthcare professionals can identify if certain strategies or therapies need to be modified or replaced with more effective alternatives. Additionally, ongoing assessments allow for early intervention if there are signs of worsening symptoms or new challenges emerging.

Regular monitoring of progress and making necessary adjustments ensures that individuals with ADHD receive optimal care throughout their treatment journey. It allows for personalized modifications based on each person’s unique response to interventions, ultimately enhancing their overall well-being and quality of life.

Additional Resources

When it comes to managing ADHD, additional resources can be invaluable in providing support and guidance. One helpful resource is joining support groups or online communities dedicated to ADHD. These platforms offer a space for individuals with ADHD, their families, and caregivers to connect with others who understand their challenges and share experiences. Through these communities, individuals can gain insights into different coping strategies, find emotional support, and access valuable resources such as recommended books or websites.

In addition to support groups, there are various services and products available specifically tailored for those with ADHD. These may include coaching programs that provide personalized guidance on managing symptoms and improving daily functioning. Other resources could include apps designed to help track medication schedules or organize tasks more efficiently. Exploring these options can complement the treatment plan established after an assessment and contribute to ongoing progress in managing ADHD symptoms effectively.

Support groups and communities

Support groups and communities play a vital role in providing assistance and understanding for individuals with ADHD. Connecting with others who share similar experiences can offer valuable emotional support, education, and practical advice for managing symptoms effectively. These groups often provide a safe space to discuss challenges, share coping strategies, and celebrate successes. Additionally, joining an ADHD community can help reduce feelings of isolation and promote a sense of belonging among individuals who may otherwise feel misunderstood or stigmatized.

Participating in support groups allows individuals with ADHD to learn from each other’s experiences and gain insights into various treatment approaches that have proven effective for others facing similar challenges. Support group members often provide valuable recommendations for therapists or specialists experienced in working with ADHD clients. In these forums, members also have the opportunity to ask questions, seek guidance on specific issues they may be experiencing, or simply find comfort knowing they are not alone in their journey towards managing their condition effectively. Support groups serve as an invaluable resource for individuals seeking connection and mutual support while navigating life with ADHD.

ADHD-related services and products

ADHD-related services and products can provide valuable support for individuals with ADHD and their families. These resources are designed to assist in managing symptoms, improving daily functioning, and enhancing overall well-being.

There is a wide range of services available, including therapy options such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or social skills training. These interventions can help individuals develop coping mechanisms, improve organizational skills, and foster better communication. Additionally, there are various tools and products specifically designed for managing ADHD symptoms, such as medication reminder apps or noise-canceling headphones to minimize distractions.

By utilizing these services and products, individuals with ADHD can access the necessary tools to navigate daily challenges effectively. It is crucial to explore the available resources and find those that best suit individual needs in order to optimize treatment outcomes.

Getting involved and making a difference

H3: Taking an active role in the ADHD community can have a profound impact on both individuals with ADHD and their loved ones. By getting involved, you not only gain access to valuable resources and support but also have the opportunity to make a difference in the lives of others facing similar challenges. Here are some ways you can get involved:

1. Join support groups and communities: Connecting with others who understand your experiences can be incredibly empowering. Online forums, local support groups, and social media communities provide platforms for sharing stories, seeking advice, and offering encouragement.

2. Access ADHD-related services and products: Many organizations offer specialized services tailored to individuals with ADHD. These may include coaching programs, educational workshops, therapy sessions, or assistive technology tools designed to enhance productivity.

3. Volunteer or contribute to advocacy efforts: By volunteering your time or contributing financially to organizations dedicated to raising awareness about ADHD, promoting research initiatives or advocating for policy changes, you play an active role in shaping the future of ADHD treatment and support.

4. Share your story and educate others: By openly discussing your personal experiences with ADHD, you help reduce stigma surrounding this condition while educating others about its realities. Through blogs articles, public speaking engagements or participating in awareness campaigns, you can inspire understanding and compassion among those around you.

ADHD assessments play a crucial role in developing effective treatment plans for both children/teenagers as well as adults dealing with this neurodevelopmental disorder. The assessment process involves thorough evaluations by healthcare professionals using various diagnostic tools that help identify symptoms specific to each individual’s case.